What is Physiology?
Physiology is the branch of biology, which deals with the study of the characteristics, functioning and mechanisms of the human body. It is mainly concentrated on living organisms, their cells, tissues, organs and also about how metabolic processes in a living system are carried out. The first person to introduce the term “physiology,” was Jean Fernel, a French physician.
Physiology explains how the various body parts in humans, animals, birds, insects and plants function. It enables us to understand many concepts related to the metabolic functioning of cells, tissues, mechanisms of living organisms, digestion and processing of nutrients and the impact of the external environment.
Moreover, physiology differs from one living species to another, i.e. animal physiology is different from that of plant physiology. This is because animals need to have a quick response to stimuli, which is absent in plants.
Interesting Facts about Physiology
There are more interesting facts about Physiology, a few of them have been listed below.
Physiology explains how the cells, tissues and other systems in living organisms function and also about the different metabolic processes.
A human body has two defence systems. The body’s internal defence network is the immune system, which functions as a biological invader against the pathogens. The skin, the body’s external defence network, acts as the first line of defence by secreting natural antibacterial compounds against the invading pathogens.
The human brain is referred to as the body’s computer. This is because, in terms of memory storage, the human brain can hold approximately 256 exabytes.
Along with the other main organs, the human heart and the kidney function continuously. The human heart is known for pumping blood throughout the body at an incredible rate. Similarly, a pair of kidneys processes over 45 to 50 gallons of blood every day, which is nearly double the amount the heart receives each day.
Saliva is an extracellular fluid produced and secreted by salivary glands in the mouth. It is mainly composed of 99 percent water and 1% electrolytes and enzymes. Along with the digestion process, this extracellular fluid is also involved in preventing tooth decay and also prevents the tissues of our throat from desiccating.
The human eyes are complex organs, which can distinguish up to 10 million different colours, whereas the nose can identify more than 50,000 to a trillion smells and the brain subsequently can remember these smells.
Similar to human physiology, animal physiology mainly deals with the study of different types of biological processes, which occur in an animal life to exist. Along with the structure and function of animals, animal physiology also refers to how they interact with their environment.
Plant physiology deals with the physiological processes or functions of plants. Precisely, it is a descriptive study of variation and structure of plants at the molecular and cellular level.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the study of different life processes in plants including – transportation of water and mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, respiration and finally plant growth and development, which are traits displayed by living entities.
Human physiology is mainly concerned with the study of functioning and mechanisms of human body organs including the human respiratory system circulatory system, digestive system, endocrine system, excretory system, reproductive system, immune system, integumentary system, musculoskeletal system, the nervous system, the renal system, etc.
This article concludes an introduction to Physiology, along with its amazing facts. Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more in detail about Physiology and their types. Students can also learn about other interesting topics by subscribing to the BYJU’S Youtube videos.